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Faham Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD) Dengan Lebih Mudah

Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD) sebelum ini dikenali sebagai Pentaksiran Sekolah. PBD mengekalkan semua konsep Pentaksiran Sekolah dan melibatkan penentuan tahap penguasaan murid dalam setiap mata pelajaran. Tahap penguasaan ini dinyatakan dalam DSKP. Selain daripada Standard Prestasti, Standard Kandungan dan Standard Pembelajaran juga dirujuk dalam pelaksanaan Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD).


Panduan Pelaksanaan Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD)
Panduan Pelaksanaan Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD)

Sebelum kita pegi lebih lanjut mengenai Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD) jom kita fahamkan dulu tentang Pentaksiran Berasaskan Sekolah (PBS) dan apa bezanya dengan Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD).


Komponen Pentaksiran Berasaskan Sekolah (PBS)
Komponen Pentaksiran Berasaskan Sekolah (PBS)


Standard Kandungan
Standard Kandungan adalah pernyataan spesifik tentang perkara yang murid patut ketahui dan boleh lakukan dalam suatu tempoh persekolahan merangkumi aspek pengetahuan, kemahiran dan nilai.

Standard Pembelajaran 
Standard Pembelajaran adalah suatu penetapan kriteria atau indikator kualiti pembelajaran dan pencapaian yang boleh diukur bagi setiap standard kandungan.

Standard Prestasi
Standard Prestasi adalah  suatu set kriteria umum yang menunjukkan tahap-tahap penguasaan yang perlu murid pamerkan sebagai tanda bahawa sesuatu perkara itu telah dikuasai oleh murid. 



Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD) bertujuan menambah baik pembelajaran murid melalui pentaksiran formatif iaitu Pentaksiran Untuk Pembelajaran dan juga Pentaksiran Sebagai Pembelajaran. 

Namun begitu PBD juga boleh berlaku untuk melihat pencapaian atau penguasaan murid selepas sesuatu tempoh yang bersesuaian, melalui pentaksiran sumatif. Pentaksiran ini dilihat sebagai Pentaksiran Tentang Pembelajaran. 


Pentaksiran Formatif dan Sumatif
Pentaksiran Formatif dan Sumatif


Pentaksiran Untuk Pembelajaran
Contoh pentaksiran ini ialah aktiviti soal jawab semasa pembelajaran dijalankan. Maklumat yang diperolehi membantu guru meneruskan PdPc seterusnya.


Pentaksiran Sebagai Pembelajaran
Contoh pentaksiran ini ialah murid membina peta konsep tentang apa yang telah dipelajari bagi mempamerkan pemahaman dan hubungannya dengan pengetahuan semasa. Pentaksiran ini memberi peluang kepada murid belajar dan memikirkan cara mereka belajar. 


1. Pentaksiran Kendiri
Murid menilai kerja mereka sendiri berdasarkan bukti dan kriteria yang jelas

Bentuk pentaksiran kendiri ialah:
- Rancangan / diari mingguan murid
- Soal selidik
- Portfolio
- Pemarkahan merujuk kriteria tertentu
- Helaian pentaksiran dengan memberi ulasan
- Maklum balas secara lisan
- Perbincangan kumpulan atau individu
- Kenyataan peribadi untuk kad laporan
- Persediaan dan perancangan ke arah hasil kerja muktamad
- Analisis kriteria dan keupayaan pentaksiran murid


2. Pentaksiran Rakan Sebaya
Memberi peluang kepada murid untuk belajar dalam pasukan atau kumpulan dan melibatkan diri secara aktif dalam proses pembelajaran dengan bertanggungjawab. 


Pentaksiran Tentang Pembelajaran
Pentaksiran Tentang Pembelajaran berlaku pada akhir sesuatu tempoh, tajuk atau bidang pembelajaran. Biasanya berlaku dalam bentuk ujian sumatif. Juga boleh berlaku dalam bentuk pembentangan hasil projek. 



Objektif Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD)
PBD dilaksanakan untuk mendapatkan gambaran tentang kemajuan pembelajaran murid di samping memberi maklum balas tentang pengajaran guru. 

Melalui Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah, guru dapat:
- mengesan pengetahun sedia ada murid
- mengesan perkembangan murid secara menyeluruh
- mengenal pasti kekuatan dan kelemahan murid dalam pembelajaran dari semasa ke semasa
- mengetahui keberkesanan PdPc
- merancang, mengubah suai dan menambah baik kaedah PdPc
- menjalankan tindakan susulan yang sesuai dengan serta merta

Melalui Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah, murid dapat:
- mengesan perkembangan diri
- mengenal pasti kekuatan dan kelemahan dalam pembelajaran
- meningkatkan pencapaian pembelajaran



Ciri-Ciri Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD)
Terdapat 9 ciri utama yang dapat membantu guru dalam Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD). PBD yang dilaksanakan oleh guru dapat membantu murid mengatasi masalah pembelajaran yang telah dikenal pasti pada peringkat awal lagi supaya kelemahan dapat diatasi dengan segera. PBD dilaksanakan seperti rajah di bawah

 
Ciri Utama Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD)
Ciri Utama Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD)





Tahap Penguasaan
Tahap Penguasaan dalam KSSR dan KSSM merupakan satu bentuk pernyataan pencapaian yang menunjukkan perkembangan murid. Terdapat enam Tahap Penguasaan yang menunjukkan aras penguasaan yang disusu secara hierarki dan digunakan untuk tujuan rujukan pencapaian murid bagi setiap mata pelajaran. 


Pernyataan Tahap Penguasaan
Pernyataan Tahap Penguasaan


Bagi yang nakkan maklumat lebih lanjut mengenai pelaksanaan Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD), anda boleh lah download Panduan Pelaksanaan Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD) daripada laman web Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia.




Dari panduan yang disediakan, contoh juga diberikan bagaimana nak isi templat pelaporan PBD dengan lebih terperinci.



Pertimbangan Profesional 
Pertimbangan profesional ialah pertimbangan yang dibuat menggunakan pengetahuan profesional terhadap kurikulum yang dihasratkan mencakupi pengetahuan, kemahiran, nilai, bukti pencapaian, strategi pengajaran, kaedah pentaksiran serta kriteria dan standard yang ditetapkan. 

 
Elemen Pertimbangan Profesional
Elemen Pertimbangan Profesional


Guru perlu membuat keputusan secara beretika dan bertanggungjawab mengenai tahap penguasaan murid, berdasarkan analisis dan rumusan maklumat terhadap pembelajaran.

Elemen dalam melaksanakan pertimbangan profesional adalah pengetahuan, tanggungjawab profesional, input murid dan pengalaman. Perkara lain yang juga perlu diambil kira dalam melaksanakan pertimbangan profesional adalah hasrat kurikulum, tujuan pentaksiran, kaedah pentaksiran, suasana pentaksiran, amanah dan peluang.


Moderasi
Moderasi adalah proses penetapan aspek atau kriteria dalam pentaksiran. Moderasi dijalankan bagi tujuan memastikan pertimbangan yang dibuat adil, konsisten, sah dan boleh dipercayai. Guru boleh menggunakan mana-mana kaedah seperti kalibrasi, persidangan dan merujuk pakar.


Secara keseluruhannya, pelaksanaan Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD) adalah seperti carta alir berikut.


Carta Alir Pelaksanaan Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD)
Carta Alir Pelaksanaan Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD)


 1. Merancang PdPc dan Kaedah Pentaksiran
- memahami kandungan tajuk dalam DSKP
- menentukan objektif pembelajaran yang perlu dicapai murid dan yang hendak ditaksir guru
- Mengenal pasti kaedah pentaksiran yang sesuai


2. Melaksanakan PdPc dan Pentaksiran
- Pentaksiran secara Lisan
- Pentaksiran secara bertulis
- Pentaksiran secara pemerhatian


3. Merekod dan Menganalisis Penguasaan Murid
- rekod dalam bentuk pernyataan, simbol, markah dan gred
- boleh dilakukan dalam rekod mengajar, buku catatan guru, senarai semak dan templat pelaporan


4. Tindakan Susulan


5. Melapor
- merangkumi tahap penguasaan, penyataan tentang minat, sikap dan perlakuan serta cadangan tindakan susulan


Bagi membantu guru-guru lebih memahami Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD) direkodkan, guru-guru boleh lah rujuk pada 15 Contoh-Contoh Instrumen Pentaksiran yang ada pada Bab 6 Panduan Pelaksanaan Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD).




Secara keseluruhannya,  diharapkan melalui perkongsian ini mampu membantu memudahkan urusan guru-guru mendapatkan gambaran awal (sebelum mendalami) mengenai Pentaksiran Bilik Darjah (PBD). 

Bersamalah kita meningkatkan kualiti profesional kita sebagai guru, dan seterusnya memberi impak positif kepada pendidikan di Malaysia!



 

Catat Ulasan

70 Ulasan

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